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Writing rules


1- The paper whose full text is requested to be published must be written within the framework of the writing rules determined by the International Social Research Congress Executive Board. It is the author's responsibility to correct spelling and information errors in the work.

2. Papers sent for publication are first pre-evaluated.


Publication language: The written language of the full-text proceedings book is Turkish. However, articles in English can also be published. Writing rules: It is obligatory for the publication association to have the following formal features for the articles to be sent to the full-text proceedings book. Turkish Title: It should be written in capital letters, not exceeding 10-12 words, compatible with the content, and should be placed in the middle of the page. Heading should be 11 pt, spacing should be 20 pt first and then 12 pt. Right and left should be written 1 cm in. English Title: It should be written in uppercase and bold letters, not exceeding 10-12 words, in harmony with the content, below the Turkish Abstract, in 11 pt, left and right 1 cm indented with 3 pt spaces before and after. Author's name and address: The name (small) and surname (large) of the author(s) should be written in 11 points, centered under the title; title, institution, correspondence, e-mail addresses and ORCID should be indicated as footnotes in normal characters. Abstract and Key Words: Articles in Turkish or foreign languages should contain an abstract between 150-250 words. The Turkish and English abstracts should be listed on the first page, with the Turkish abstract followed by the English abstract. Abstract (Abstract) should be in 10 font size, single line, 1 cm from the left and right. The abstract section should start with a 3 pt space just below the author's name. There should be keywords starting with a capital letter between 3-10 words under the Abstract and Abstract. The title of the abstract should be written in 10 point bold and it should be in the form of "Abstract: Text" - "Abstract: Text". Main text: The text is written with Microsoft Word software program on a page with dimensions of 17 / 24 cm, Times New Roman 11 points, single-spaced and 2.5 cm from the top, 2.5 cm from the bottom, 2.5 cm from the left, 2.5 cm from the right margins and should be submitted in a single column not exceeding 30 pages. Paragraphs should start with a 0 cm indent. The main text should start with a 3 pt space just below the abstract. Section headings: The headings in the article should be numbered, excluding the Introduction, Conclusion and Bibliography, and should be written in bold and starting from the left margin. Figures and Tables: The name of the figure should be placed under the figure and the title of the table should be above the table. Figure and table numbers should be given as 1, 2, 3, .... Quotations and References: It should be done in Chicago style (classical style) as numbered footnotes on the bottom of the page. Page numbers are not indicated in the quotations and quotations made in summary form; The page number or numbers are given in full only in direct quotations. Quotations exceeding 3 lines should be indented only 1 cm from the left according to the main text. In the footnotes, when the source is used for the first time, the name and surname, the title of the work, the volume and issue if any, the name of the translator, if any, the publisher, the place of publication, the date of publication and the page number from which the information in question is taken. If the same work will be used more than once, footnotes should be written in the form of author surname, age (mentioned work)-agm (mentioned article), relevant page number. (For example: Kayapınar, supra, p. 356).

Heading Size 11 pt, centered, bold

Paper Size 17 x 24 cm

Main Text Top Margin 2.5 cm Bottom Margin 2.5 cm Left Margin 2.5 cm Right Margin 2.5 cm First line indent 0 cm

Font Times New Roman

Font Style Normal Normal Text Size 11 pt

Paragraph Spacing 3 pt

Line Spacing Single

Footnote Text Size 9 pt

Quoting Text Size 10 pt

Quote Margins 1 cm from Left

Abstract Font Times New Roman

Abstract Font Style Normal

Core Margins Right-Left 1 cm

Abstract Text Size 10 pt

Abstract Title 10 pt, Justified, Bold

Examples: Book: Halil İnalcık, Ottoman Empire-Classical Age, 1300-1600, trans. Ruşen Sezer, Yapı Kredi Publications, Istanbul 2009, 11th ed., p. 115.
In subsequent citations: İnalcık, supra, p. 123.

If the author has more than one work, in the following footnotes: İnalcık, Classical Age, p. Article 123: İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, “Consideration on the First Viziers in the Ottomans”, Belleten, c. III/ p. 9 [or III/9] (1939), p. 101. -

Bibliography: The sources and researches used in the articles should be shown under this heading at the end of the article. References should be written in 9 points. Only the references cited in the text should be included and should be arranged alphabetically according to the surnames of the authors:
İNALCIK Halil, Ottoman Empire-Classical Age, 1300-1600, trans. Ruşen Sezer, Yapı Kredi Publications, Istanbul 2009.
UZUNÇARŞILI İsmail Hakkı, “Consideration on the First Viziers in the Ottomans”, Belleten, c. III/ p. 9 [or III/9] (1939), pp. 99-106.

Principles to be Followed in Transliteration Texts

a) In printed texts after the Tanzimat:

1. In such texts, transliteration, or in other words, “lightened transcription” is applied, not scientific transcription. The concept of "transcription" to be used from now on is to reflect all the letters, including the letters that are not used in Turkish, with another alphabet; transliteration, on the other hand, describes transferring without any simplification while preserving the integrity of the word.

2. All long syllables should be written with the letters â, û, î. Ex. dominance; ruberu; cerîde … For the long a sound in words that should be read bold and may cause confusion, the spelling of "ā" can be preferred to prevent this situation. Ex. Gāzī; comparison; tekābül, kānûn… This will also prevent reading mistakes in Arabic and Persian words with similar spellings. Ex. As in the words “kānûn” meaning “law” and “İkincikânûn” (Kânûnisânî) meaning “January”…

3. The original sounds of the words should be preserved, the mitigation in transcription should be limited to orthography. Ex. Aptülhak Hamid ( – ) → Abdülhak Hamid ( + )

4. İSAM in DİA and MEB in writing Arabic compositions. The spelling rules adopted in the Encyclopedia of Islam should be applied. Ex. Muhîtü'l-Maârif; Muînü'd-dawla …

5. In Persian compositions, the compound hyphen should be written each time. Ex. State-i Aliyya; Hüsn-i muâmele, manager-i umûmî … The composition –i in Persian compositions should not be written as “-ü”. Ex. director-u general ( – ); husn-i muâmele ( – ); umûr-u mâliye ( – ) → umûr-ı mâliye ( + ) … The “ü”s corresponding to the word “and” are preserved as they are and are written without being concatenated with the word before and after it.

6. In Ottoman printed texts, the names of persons and cities belonging to the Western area are usually written as they are read. In the transcription of a post-Tanzimat text, such words should be written in accordance with the orthography of the original language. Ex. “The letter sent by the French staying in Egypt to the General Manager of Public Finance (…)” ( – ). “The letter sent by the French who stayed in Egypt to umûr-ı mâliye manager-i umûmîsi Poussielque (…)” ( + ) The use of Turkish is taken as the basis for the names of foreign places and persons that are widely used in Turkish.

7. Masdar-ı ca'lîs should be written with a double y except for the ones written with a single y because it is frequently used in today's Turkish. Ex. Osmaniye; Culusiyya; personal … Favorites eg. Navy; Property…

8. Words ending with Nisbet –î should be written as “î” in order not to be confused with infinitives when the Turkish noun becomes –e, but this orthography should not be used in infinitives: Ex. “According to Âmâl-i milliye …” (Here the -ye at the end of the word milli indicates the -i form of the noun). “According to Âmâl-i milliyeye …” (“Âmâl-i Milliyeye” spelling is incorrect).

9. The words and proper names that are intended to be emphasized in the printed works in Ottoman Turkish are mostly emphasized by placing them in parentheses. Today, however, it is preferred to emphasize it by enclosing it in double quotes. From this perspective; a) If there is only one (or several) words that need to be emphasized, they should be written in quotation marks instead of parentheses. Ex. “(…) their namesake (Nizâm-i Cedid) have been declared.” ( – ) “(…) their names as “Nizâm-i Cedîd” have been declared.” ( + ) b) If it is a book title that is desired to be emphasized, only italicization is sufficient for emphasis. Ex. “Tameşvarî (Hadîkatü'ş-Şu'arâ ) / “Hadîkatü'ş-Şu'arâ” in his work-i bîhemta (…)” ( – ). “Tameşvarî Hadikatü'ş-Şu'arânâm in his work-i bî-hemta (…)” ( + ). c) Since there is no distinction between upper and lower case letters in the Ottoman alphabet, there is no need for special emphasis in the form of quotation marks in the names of individuals, institutions or places; Capital letters are sufficient. Ex. “The Master of Shaykh al-Islam (Munir Efendi) was also summoned and brought to the scene.” ( – ) “The Master of Shaykh al-Islam, Münîr Efendi, was also summoned and brought into existence.” ( + ) Therefore, in such cases, parentheses used in texts written in Ottoman Turkish should not be used at all. Of course, parentheses will be used in sentences or word groups that are explanation and additional information.

10. The translations of the sentences quoted from languages other than Turkish in the main text should be included in the text, and if necessary, their original spellings should be given in footnotes before the source information.

11. The spelling of Persian words that are not used in today's Turkish should be based on Turkish pronunciation, as in those used today. Ex. nohoft ( – ) → nühüft ( +); dovom ( – ) → dowm ( +) …

12. The common Turkish pronunciation should be taken as a basis in the writing of all kinds of Arabic words in a printed text in Ottoman Turkish. Ex. Rasul ( – ) → Rasul; a'yân → âyân …

13. The letter ayn, which is a sound peculiar to Arabic words, should not be reflected in spelling unless it causes confusion of meaning or reading error.

14. Apostrophes and hyphens that will be used in Arabic and Persian compositions, which have become names or are used so often, should be removed since the printed texts after the Tanzimat will be based on transliteration rather than transcription. Ex. Abdul Hamid ( – ) → Abdulhamid ( + ) Kanun-i sani ( – ) → Kanunisani ( + ); Teşrîn-i sânî ( – ) → Teşrînîsanî (+); Rebîü'l-evvel → Rebîü'l-evvel Cemâziye'l-ahir → Cemâziyelâhir; Zi'l-ka'de → Zilkāde Şeyhü'l-İslâm ( – ) → Şeyhülislâm ( + ) etc.

15. Although the letter b is generally used in Ottoman texts and the letters c and d in some other words are used at the end of Turkish words, especially words with verb origin, p, ç, t-shaped hard consonants should be used in transliteration studies. Again, especially in verb-origin words, as a continuation of the Old Turkish pronunciation in the Anatolian field, the “ü” sounds, “i”, “ı” sounds, which are reflected in the Ottoman orthography, should be corrected according to phonetic harmony; The sound, which is also called the closed letter e and is usually written with the letter "i", should be written with the letter "e".

Ex. idub ( – ) → idb ( + ); put ( – ) → put ( + ); bitub ( – ) → end ( + ); for ( – ) → for ( + ); tree ( – ) → tree ( + ); valiant → ( – ) valiant ( +); gate ( – ) → gate ( + ) …

b) Writing after the Tanzimat In archive documents: Scientific transcription method is applied in such texts. c) In pre-Tanzimat printed or manuscript texts: The scientific transcription method applied in ISAM DIA and MEB Encyclopedia of Islam should have been used while the transcriptions of such works were being prepared. If there is any incompatibility between these two Encyclopedias, DIA is taken as the basis. When proposing the publication of a pre-Tanzimat text to the institution, the letters specific to the transcription alphabet should be listed at the beginning of the work; Throughout the text, this alphabet should be taken as a basis, especially in the writing of the letters that are not found in Turkish.
d) Russian, Bulgarian, Greek etc. transliteration should be used in different languages, the transfer of words should be according to Turkish pronunciation.

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